Diánoia

volume LIX, number 73, November 2014



Articles

La metafísica megárica: unidad, identidad y monismo predicativo

[Megarian Metaphysics: Unity, Identity, and Predicational Monism]

Mariana Gardella

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Abstract: This paper purports to clarify the general features of Megarianmetaphysics against two traditional interpretations which ascribe to this philosophical group either the defense of a numerical monism or a theory of Forms. Based on the testimonies of Euclid and Stilpo of Megara, I will aim to show that a main characteristic of Megarian metaphysics is the development of the concepts of unity and identity of each thing to itself, which involves a disavowal of difference as a possible property and, consequently, of any kind of change. I also intend to show that, although this standpoint does not exclude the existence of multiple entities, it implies that these entities are not Forms. Consequently, the Megarians do not develop a numerical monism but a predicational one, according to which the adscription of many predicates to the same entity is rejected.
Keywords: Euclides de Mégara, Estilpón de Mégara, agathología, diferencia, tipos de monismo

Modos de articulación entre política y economía en el pensamiento de Aristóteles: divergencias con la hermenéutica arendtiana

[The Articulation of Politics and Economy in Aristotle’s Thought: Divergences from Arendt’s Hermeneutics]

M.A. Rossi, H. Borisonik and E. Mancinelli

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Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the ways in which politics and economy are articulated in the Aristotelian view. To achieve this end, two thematic axes are developed. First, the relationship between oíkos and polis and, secondly, the relationship between economy and political regimes. One of the central features of this work is to show our differences with Arendt’s hermeneutic. Thus, our paper emphasizes the importance of the economic dimension within Aristotle’s political thought, even for thinking politics itself —an aspect that becomes clear in the constitution that Aristotle considered the best possible: the politeia.
Keywords: oíkos, polis, regímenes políticos, crematística

La metafísica modal de Leibniz: su fundamentación de la contingencia hacia 1686 y su concepción integral de madurez

[Leibniz’s Modal Metaphysics: The Explanation of Contingency Towards 1686 and the Global Mature Conception]

Maximiliano Escobar Viré

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Abstract: If God is the sufficient reason for this world, then it seems to follow that every event is a necessary consequence of a necessary being. In order to avoid this conclusion, Leibniz states, during the 1670’s, a modal conception that grounds contingency on a logical feature which is intrinsic to the ideas of things: the possibility of conceiving the opposite idea without contradiction. Towards 1686, Leibniz complements this first conception with what he considered to be his definitive solution to the problem of contingency: the theory of infinite analysis. However, in other writings from the same year, he proposes two different ways to explain contingency. This paper suggests that this plurality of models converges in a global conception of modalities, which lies at the background of Leibniz’s modal thought.
Keywords: alethic modalities, necessitarianism, essences, notions of individual substances, primitive decrees of God

El papel de la imaginación en La memoria, la historia, el olvido de Paul Ricoeur

[The Role of Imagination in Paul Ricoeur’s Memory, History, Forgetting]

Esteban Lythgoe

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Abstract: Several interpreters have recognized the importance of productive imagination in Ricoeur’s work, but most of them have focused their research on his works of the seventies and eighties. I want to argue that imagination has also a central role in Memory, History, Forgetting. My hypothesis is that this notion articulates the different moments of the work, mainly those related to phenomenology of memory and epistemology of history. I also wish to relativize the argument that after Time and Narrative Ricoeur emphasized synthetic imagination, by showing the presence of free imagination in Memory, History, Forgetting.
Keywords: Synthetic imagination, free imagination, recognition, ideology, utopia

Un evidencialismo antiindividualista

[An Antiindividualistic Evidentialism]

Rodrigo Laera

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Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose an anti-individualistic alternative to evidentialism. This alternative maintains that doxastic states constitute themselves as evidences on the basis of the acceptance of the epistemic community in which they arise. In the first place, the paper explains the problems that emerge when trying to link fiabilism to the conviction of evidence. In the second place, it suggests that those problems could be solved if evidentialism includes the idea that evaluation standards of the epistemic community establish what is evidence or not. Finally, it emphasizes the virtues of antiindividualistic evidentialism and seeks to determine its extent.
Keywords: evidentialism, justification, reliability, anti-individualism