Diánoia

volume LVI, number 66, May 2011



Articles

Heidegger, lector de la retórica aristotélica

[Heidegger, a Reading of Aristotle’s Rhetoric]

Jesús Adrián Escudero

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Abstract: The present article analyses Heidegger’s productive assimilation of the Aristotelian rhetoric, paying special attention to his lectures of 1924, Basic Concepts of Aristotelian Philosophy, and its later influence on the phenomenon of everydayness and the idle talk exposed in Being and Time. First, I outline Heidegger’s early interpretation of Aristotle’s politic and practical writings (1). Second, I show in more detail his ontological reading of Aristotle’s Rhetoric, focusing on the sphere of communicability of opinions (2). And third, I describe the positive and negative aspects related to the phenomenon of idle talk sketched out in Being and Time, a phenomenon which condensates a good portion of his interpretations of Aristotelian rhetoric.
Keywords: discourse, idle talk, language, opinion

La indicación formal como renovación de la fenomenología: luces y sombras

[The Formal Indication as a Renewal of Phenomenology: Lights and Shadows]

José Ruiz Fernández

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Abstract: In his first Freiburg lessons Heidegger proposed that an original philosophical conceptualization had to have a formal-indicative character. This involved a deep methodological transformation of phenomenology towards a hermeneutics of factual life. This work expounds how the assumption of a formal-indicative procedure allows Heidegger to overcome certain problems of Husserl’s understanding of phenomenology, which Natorp had pointed out. Besides, this paper makes a critical consideration of Heidegger’s original phenomenological approach.
Keywords: method, Husserl, meaning, Heidegger

Razón práctica y violencia en Paul Ricoeur

[Practical Reason and Violence in Paul Ricoeur]

Silvia Cristina Gabriel

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Abstract: Given the polarity between the “legitimist” (Weber) and the “illegitimist” (Arendt) theories of violence in the political field, I will explore the philosophical contributions of Paul Ricoeur to this issue. Since the political field is for the author the accomplishment of the ethical intention, I will first explore the ethical and moral dimension of violence. Secondly, I will enter in the proper political field where we will see Ricoeur defends an “asymmetrical” dialectic between the “legitimist” and “illegitimist” arguments in which the former acquire reasonability within a “broad” concept of violence akin to Arendt’s. Thirdly, I will approach the temporal dimension of violence as it appears in collective memory and in history. I will conclude with an account of the merits and partially unresolved questions within Ricoeur’s work.
Keywords: ethics, political field, history, difficult forgiveness

Rawls y un principio de diferencia global

[Rawls and a Global Difference Principle]

Cristian Dimitriu

>PDF (122KB)
Abstract: In this paper I will analyze John Rawls’s claims against an international difference principle as presented in The Law of Peoples. I argue that these claims are inconsistent with the difference principle itself. If we accept them, then we will face the dilemma of either having to endorse this principle both in the domestic and the international domains or having to reject it completely. I also defend the view that Rawls’s possible reply to this objection relies on the dubious empirical premise that countries are blameworthy for their own failure.
Keywords: global justice, law of peoples, economic equality, poverty

Intersubjetividad y autorreferencialidad en la teoría ética de C.S. Nino

[Intersubjectivity and Auto-Referentiality in C.S. Nino’s Ethical Theory]

Matías Parmigiani

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Abstract: In El constructivismo ético, C.S. Nino pointed out that “discussion and inter-subjective decision is the most trustable procedure when trying to arrive to moral truth”. This epistemic thesis about moral knowledge clearly embraces a political assessment: in order to succeed at impartially satisfying the interests of everyone in a community, “the interchange of ideas and each person’s necessity to justify in the face of the others” play a pivotal role. On the contrary, when the task in question is related to the auto-referential dimension of morality, the derivations of that thesis in Nino’s work become certainly unclear. By attempting to overstep this bound, I will explore in the present paper the connection that is supposed to exist between the social practice of moral communication and the discovery and justification of the auto-referential principles of behavior.
Keywords: moral deliberation, autonomy, liberalism, perfectionism

Acerca de la influencia de la teoría del Estado de Johann G. Fichte en la ética de Hermann Cohen

[About the Influence of Johann G. Fichte’s Theory of the State in Hermann Cohen’s Ethics]

Héctor Oscar Arrese Igor

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Abstract: In this paper I try to show that there are important differences between Hermann Cohen’s and Johann Gottlieb Fichte’s conceptions of the state. Therefore I conclude that the thesis of the influence of the Fichtean philosophy upon Cohen’s theory is problematic.
Keywords: right, democracy, constitution, freedom