Diánoia

volume LV, number 65, November 2010



Articles

La concepción aristotélica del silogismo práctico. En defensa de una interpretación restrictiva

[Aristotle’s Conception of Practical Syllogism. In Defense of a Restrictive View]

Alejandro G. Vigo

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Abstract: This paper presents a new set of textual and systematic arguments for a restrictive view of Aristotle’s conception of the so called practical syllogism. According to this view, the aristotelian practical syllogism constitutes a structure aiming to explain the production of voluntary animal movement and human action, in terms of a specific version of the desire-belief schema. Consequently, practical syllogism should not be confused with other forms of practical reasoning like deliberative syllogism or deontic syllogism. The examples used by Aristotle are discussed, showing how they are best under- stood according to the proposed interpretation.
Keywords: Aristotle, practical syllogism, voluntary movement, action

Aristóteles y la prueba de que el ser no es un género (Metafísica III 3)

[Aristotle and the Proof that Being Is Not a Genus (Metaphysics III 3)]

Marco Zingano

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Abstract: In this paper, my aim is to investigate some features of the way in which Aristotle argues for his basic tenet that being is not a genus in Metaphysics III 3. The argument proves to be rather restricted, as it operates with premises specifying very special conditions for a good definition in accordance with the genus-plus-differentia pattern. It is argued then that this strong dependence on premises stemming from very specific philosophical schools accounts for its rather mitigated reception already in Antiquity, beginning with Alexander of Aphrodisias.
Keywords: homonymy, genus, being, general principles

Las concepciones aristotélicas de la vida buena y la falacia naturalista

[Aristotelian Conceptions of the Good Life and the Naturalistic Fallacy]

Rocío Cázares Blanco

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Abstract: Aristotelian conceptions of the good life are often criticized from several ethical positions, like G.E. Moore’s anti-naturalism or emotivism and prescriptivism. Aristotelians are accused of committing the naturalistic fallacy when they make a moral evaluation of features, actions, intentions and faculties of human beings. In this paper, I examine and refute Alfonso Gómez-Lobo’s strategy to reject that accusation; then, I propose another strategy and I argue that inclusivist Aristotelian conceptions of the good life could be freed from such criticism if they appeal to the concept of “brute facts relative to” as proposed by G.E. Anscombe.
Keywords: Aristotle, good life, naturalistic fallacy, brute facts

Aristóteles y la lluvia, una vez más

[Aristotle and the Rain, Once ]

Gabriela Rossi

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Abstract: The text of Physics 2.8 has been recently interpreted so as to restore the reading that Aristotle holds an external, and even an anthropocentric, natural teleology. This reading has been defended by D. Furley, and especially by D. Sedley. In this paper I present several arguments against this interpretation of the text. Thus, I will argue that Aristotle does not claim, in this chapter, that it rains for the sake of the growing of the crop, against an opinion which is currently somewhat extended among interpreters.
Keywords: Physics 2.8, immanent teleology, external teleology, anthropocentrism

Teúrgia: camino de Jámblico a lo inefable

[Theurgy: Iamblichus’ Path to the Ineffable]

José Molina Ayala

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Abstract: Iamblichus of Chalcis postulated theurgy on metaphysical grounds as the only way of communion with the supreme principle of everything that exists. Iamblichus set out this principle as a completely trascendent reality, ungraspable by reason, conceived matter as an instrument for the soul’s ascent to that principle. Iamblichus proposed explicitly a mystic of communion with the cosmos and with the other souls, unlike Plotinus, who postulated the absolute withdrawal from everything and conceived the union with the One as an escape in solitude to the Solitary.
Keywords: neoplatonism, mysticism, ineffable, deification

¿Son problemáticos para el veritismo la naturaleza y el valor del entendimiento?

[Are the Nature and Value of Understanding Problematic for Veritism]

Miguel Ángel Fernández

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Abstract: This paper examines a series of recent objections to veritistic epistemology that aim to show that it cannot account for the nature and value of understanding. Section 1 formulates the central tenets of veritistic epistemology and makes a few more preliminary remarks. Sections 2 and 3 discuss objections that attempt to show that cognitive states implicated in understanding have a sui generis nature which makes the veritistic model of evaluation inapplicable to them. Sections 4 and 5 examine objections that aim to show that there are aspects of understanding which are epistemically valuable, whose value cannot be explained in veritistic terms. Section 6 sums up results of the discussion: none of the objections discussed succeeds in revealing any explanatory deficit of veritism with respect to the nature and value of understanding.
Keywords: veritistic epistemology, epistemic value, cognitive ability, explanation, sistematicity

Algunas observaciones sobre el concepto freudiano de inconsciente

[Some Remarks Concerning the Freudian Concept of the Unconscious]

Alejandro Tomasini Bassols

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Abstract: In this essay I critically examine the Freudian concept of the Unconscious. I show how Freud alters the meaning of natural language’s psychological words (‘desire’, ‘pain’, ‘memory’, and so on). I try to make clear that to speak about the unconscious doesn’t tantamount to speaking of any zone of the mind, but rather to speak indirectly about human actions.
Keywords: rationality, repression, description, explanation, brain, psychoanalysis

¿Cuál es el alcance de una teoría de la justicia?

[What is the Scope of a Theory of Justice?]

Gustavo Pereira

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Abstract: Sen’s criticisms to the theories of justice give way to the projection of three aspects of the scope of such theories. The first aspect is the possibility for an idealized moment and one of applicability to work together, because idealized principles and normative criteria allow for the guidance towards the applicability of the model. The second aspect is connected to the demands of applicability, in which task Sen’s capability informational basis allows for the expansion of Rawlsian justice. The third aspect presents the articulation of two informational bases and their respective distributive and compensatory logics. These three aspects of the scope of a theory of justice represent the best way toward the realization of justice in democratic societies, especially those severely affected by poverty, marginalization and social inequalities.
Keywords: justice, equality, capabilities