Diánoia

volume LV, number 64, May 2010



Articles

El concepto de dignidad humana y la utopía realista de los derechos humanos

[The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights]

Jürgen Habermas

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Abstract: In this article, Habermas wants to defend the thesis that a conceptual connection between the moral notion of human dignity and the juridical conception of human rights has always existed, even if it has only become explicit in the recent past. Against skeptical positions or deflationary strategies, he wants to maintain that the concept of human dignity is not merely an empty classificatory expression, but rather, the source from which all the basic rights derive their sustenance (in concrete experiences of violations of human dignity), as well as the key to ground the indivisibility of all the categories (or generations) of human rights. Through a historical and conceptual reconstruction of the interconnections of two different traditions, he demonstrates how the idea of human dignity becomes the “portal” through which the egalitarian and universalistic substance of morality is imported into the law.
Keywords: human dignity, individual rights, equal respect

Sobre el asco en la moralidad

[On Disgust in Morality]

Arleen L.F. Salles

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Abstract: En este trabajo se aborda la cuestión del papel moral del asco. Se hace un bosquejo de esta emoción para luego concentrarse en la discusión sobre su estatus moral. Para ello, se identifican los tres argumentos principales contra su papel moral. El objetivo principal es mostrar que las objeciones más destacadas al asco moralizado no son lo suficientemente persuasivas, porque o bien tienden a basarse en casos en los que es evidente que el asco es indefendible, o bien parten de concepciones controvertidas sobre esa emoción y lo que representa. Para finalizar, se presentan algunas cuestiones planteadas por estudios recientes en psicología moral que tienden a vincular el asco con una cosmovisión conservadora de la moralidad.
Keywords: emotions, hierarchy, contaminants, dignity

Sobre el valor de la amistad y su conflicto potencial con la moral. Una revisión del debate contemporáneo

[[On the Value of Friendship and Its Potential Conflict with Morals. A Review of the Contemporary Debate]

Martín Daguerre

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Abstract: Two accounts of friendship can be found in the contemporary debate: one of them is centered on the type of person the friend must be, the other is centered on the history of the relationship between two people that consider themselves friends. In this paper I defend a different account, centered on the type of relationship a friendship is. This account allows us to affirm the intrinsic value of the relationship, without having to admit that the special obligations arising from friendship can conflict with moral obligations.
Keywords: impersonal friendship, relationship, disposition, virtue, conflicting obligations

Los dilemas morales qua límites de la racionalidad práctica

[Moral Dilemmas qua Limitations of Practical Rationality]

Guillermo Lariguet

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Abstract: In this paper, I attempt to show in what way moral dilemmas can be seen as limits of practical rationality. I distinguish between two types of dilemma: the first type is based in normative requirements that are non defeasible; the second type, prima facie requirements. Then, I try to show in what way a rational solution or right answer can be affected by these types of dilemmas. In addition, I discuss dilemmas with tragic elements.
Keywords: moral dilemmas, non overriding requirements, prima facie requirements, tragic dilemmas

¿Es posible hablar de tolerancia entre iguales? Algunas consideraciones críticas

[Could Tolerance between Equals Exist? Some Critical Thoughts]

René González de la Vega

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Abstract: In the field of moral and political philosophy, it has been unanimously accepted that tolerance is a quality of the agent and it is tested in various circumstances. One of these circumstances refers to the capacity or the adequate competence of the agent to stop, deter or impede the act, which is the object of tolerance. In this context some authors, Ernesto Garzón among them, defend the thesis that such competence or capacity to tolerate does not necessarily require a hierarchical relationship between the tolerating and the tolerated agent. However, in this article the author, after analyzing the meaning of adequate “competence” or “capacity” and its relationship to the basic concept of tolerance (public or private), criticizes the above thesis and argues that tolerance can exist only in hierarchal relationships of supra and subordination.
Keywords: tolerance, adequate competence, capacity, relationships of supra and subordination

Experiencia de acabamiento del pasado y pulsos vitales del sujeto. Aproximación fenomenológica al psicoanálisis de la depresión melancólica

[Experience of Past’s Cessation and Vital Pulses of the Subject. A Phenomenological Approach to the Psychoanalysis of Melancholic Depression]

Jesús Guillermo Ferrer Ortega

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Abstract: The author reads Sigmund Freud’s text on Mourning and Melancholy on the basis of a phenomenology of time’s consciousness, concretely recurring to Edmund Husserl’s hypothesis on a possible cessation of the retentional continuum. A distance from the past constitutes the condition for renovation of life’s pulses, but unconsciously the melancholic can’t veer away from another, who has died or doesn’t belong more to life’s circle of the depressed subject. The symptoms of the melancholic reveal a destructive, paradoxical process of objectivating another person and becoming object for that person. This process leads to stagnancy of the consciousness temporal flow.
Keywords: phenomenology of time, psychoanalytic, melancholic depression, time flow

Carnap y Husserl: a propósito de la constitución de la experiencia

[Carnap and Husserl: About Constitution of the Experience]

Carlos Alberto Cardona Suárez

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Abstract: This paper carries out three tasks. (i) It presents a map of possible and antagonistic readings of Carnap’s Aufbau and suggests a Kantian reading with phenomenological features. (ii) A central difficulty of the Aufbau is identified when the instantaneous feature of the elementary experiences is demanded. (iii) A possibility of minimizing this difficulty is presented using some suggestions proposed by Husserl.
Keywords: Aufbau, elementary experience, quasianalysis, conceptual geometry

Demostración leibniziana de las fórmulas numéricas

[Leibnizian Demonstration of the Numerical Formulae]

Pedro A. Viñuela

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Abstract: This paper is intended to analyze the Leibnizian theory of mathematical proof, in relation to his general view on science. Firstly, it provides the main characteristics of Leibniz’s method, making a strategic contrast with the Cartesian one (§§ 1–3). Secondly, because for Leibniz the numerical formulae are not primitive logical truths, they require a rigorous formal proof, so that the corresponding demonstration given in the New Essays is examined in order to gain new insights into the so-called Leibnizian formalism, taking into account as well Frege’s and Poincaré’s criticisms to it (§§ 4–6). Finally, it offers an evaluative account of all these considerations (§ 7).
Keywords: method, evidence, intuition, formalism, symbolism