Diánoia

volume LIV, number 63, November 2009



Articles

Heidegger y Vattimo: intérpretes de Nietzsche

[Heidegger and Vattimo: Nietzsche’s Interpreters]

Luis César Santiesteban

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Abstract: The present article examines two of the most important twentiethcentury interpretations of Nietzsche: the exegesis of Heidegger, and Vattimo’s interpretation. In the first part, the process Heidegger followed to interpret Nietzsche is analyzed. On his interpretation, Heidegger portrays Nietzsche as the last metaphysician. The article understands this interpretation as suggesting that Heidegger used the ideas of Nietzsche to secure his own project of overcoming metaphysics. The article thus deals with the themes of nihilism and Heidegger’s understanding of Nietzsche as decision and transit. In the second part, the analysis focuses on Vattimo’s daring interpretation of Nietzsche as a philosopher that surpassed metaphysics. For that purpose he emphasizes Nietzsche’s nihilism, and urges the man of today to take notice of the message of such an event and to act accordingly.
Keywords: nihilism, metaphysics, decision, transit

De la matemática clásica a la matemática moderna: Hilbert y el esquematismo kantiano

[From Classical to Modern Mathematics: Hilbert’s Formalism and Kant’s Schematism]

Carlos Torres Alcaraz

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Abstract: This essay examines the manner in which Hilbert worked out his first formalism in his investigations on the foundations of geometry. To elucidate these views, Hilbert’s position is compared with that of Kant, who set forth a constructive notion of “geometrical objects” which endured in the Philosophy of mathematics for a long time. In the first part, the author explores the way in which Kant explains the notion of proof in classical geometry and clarifies how his account relates to his theory of schematism. Next, the conception underlying Hilbert’s Grundlagen der Geometrie is presented and an attempt is made to recreate the path he followed until he reached his point of view. In particular this article explores the role that projective geometry and the principle of duality played in his reflections. Finally, Kant’s ideas are contrasted with those of Hilbert in his first formalism, pointing toward the view that the latter constitutes a necessary generalization of Kant’s mathematical philosophy.
Keywords: duality, foundations of geometry, ideal elements, axiomatic method

Una relación de homogeneidad entre términos heterogéneos. Acerca del concepto de homogeneidad en el capítulo del esquematismo de la Crítica de la razón pura

[A Relation of Homogeneity between Heterogeneous Terms. On the Concept of Homogeneity in the Schematism Chapter in the Critique of Pure Reason]

Martín Arias Albisu

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Abstract: This paper deals with the concept of homogeneity (Gleichartigkeit) used by Kant in the schematism chapter of the Critique of Pure Reason. I discuss two recent papers that address the same problem. I show that, according to Kant, homogeneity consists in a relation between two heterogeneous terms (the category and the empirical manifold) made possible by the introduction of a third element (the transcendental schema). I claim that such a peculiar relation of homogeneity does not entail the suppression of the heterogeneity (in the usual meaning of the word) between the terms linked by it.
Keywords: understanding, sensibility, category, intuition

Guillermo de Ockham y el desafío escéptico en los Quodlibeta Septem

[William of Ockham and the Skeptical Challenge in the Quodlibeta Septem]

Deni Gamboa

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Abstract: After analyzing the Quodlibeta Septem it is possible to state that Ockham’s epistemology leads to skeptical conclusions. This statement is grounded on my interpretation of the way in which any cognition process of singular entities develops. My interpretation might be expressed in two propositions: 1) the intuitive and abstractive cognitions are different forms of a simple assent, and 2) within his own espistemological system, Ockham tries to avoid skeptical conclusions by way of reflexive cognitions. Nevertheless, the idea of reflexive cognitions would not let us justify which thoughts are true. In Ockham’s epistemology, the idea of reflexive cognitions does not solve the skeptical challenge.
Keywords: intuitive cognition, abstractive cognition, reflexive cognition

La crítica de Averroes contra el determinismo de al-Ghazālī y los asharíes

[Averroes’ Criticism against al-Ghazālī’s and the Asharites’ Determinism]

Luis Xavier López Farjeat

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Abstract: The aim of this paper is to discuss the kasb doctrine, or “acquisition doctrine”, formulated by one of the most important Islamic theological sectors, i.e., the Asharites. This doctrine raises a complex question: Who is the actual agent of human actions? Is it human beings or is it God? The most renowned Asharite who tried to solve these questions is al-Ghazālī. After explaining how problematic the acquisition doctrine is, I will analyze Averroes’ arguments in the Incoherence of the Incoherence in order to find out if they really refute the Asharite determinism.
Keywords: Arabic/Islamic philosophy, Asharite theology, Islamic determinism, al-Ghazālī, Averroes

Derecho natural y derecho legal en Aristóteles

[Natural and Legal Right in Aristotle]

João Hobuss

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Abstract: One of the most complex passages in the Ethica Nicomachea deals with natural right. In the few lines dedicated by Aristotle to this issue he maintains a conception that seems to contradict the understanding of natural right focused on its perpetual nature. This paper will try to reconstruct the aristotelian argumentation in his ethics and in the Rhetoric in order to try to demonstrate that beyond an apparent contradiction it is possible to find a coherent and satisfactory thesis about natural right from what happens “for the most part” (hõs epì tò polú), which would turn understandable its variability.
Keywords: justice by nature, justice by law, hõs epì tò polù, common good