Diánoia

volume LIII, number 60, May 2008



Articles

El resurgimiento de la religión, ¿un reto para la autocomprensión de la modernidad?

[The Resurgence of Religion—A Challenge for a Secular Self-Interpretation of Modernity?]

Jürgen Habermas

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Abstract: The paper begins with a revision of the secularization thesis that linked modernization with secularization in the light of the recent worldwide expansion of religions. It asks whether and how the later phenomena requires a reconfiguration of the conceptual framework of modernization theory. While secularization has taken place effectively in the expansion of functional systems across state boundaries, religion has not become irrelevant as a “community of interpretation” on many social and moral issues. A new understanding of the secularization thesis is no longer linked to the concept of social evolution, and this implies a changed perspective on the sources of modern philosophy: post-metaphysical thought has critically appropriated contents from the Judeo-Christian tradition that are no less important than those of Greek metaphysics. But the persisting pluralism of worldviews is also a stimulus for the development of international law and shared secular principles of justice for a multicultural world society.
Keywords: secularization theory, world-religions, multicultural modernity, international justice

La teoría platónica del éros en la República

[The Doctrine of Eros in Plato's Republic]

María Angélica Fierro

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Abstract: Here, I intend to show that some aspects of the platonic conception of eros which are hinted at in the Symposium receive further development in the Republic, mainly: a) In the Symposium eros is conceived like the intense, universal desire for the good, which is focused in different individuals in different ways (Symp. 205d1–9). According to my interpretation, this idea is explained in the psychology of the Republic. b) In addition to this in Symp. 210a1–212a7 an “erotic ladder” is traced: the love for beautiful bodies; afterwards, for beautiful habits; then, for beautiful sciences; finally, for Beauty itself. However, no enlightenment about what these different “levels” refer to is provided. Here I show how the whole program of education in the Republic constitutes a systematic development of these ideas of the Symposium.
Keywords: Eros, soul, Symposium, Republic

El argumento del objeto del pensamiento en el tratado aristotélico Sobre las Ideas (Peri idōen)

[The Object of Thought Argument in Aristotle's Treatise On Ideas (Peri ideōn)]

José Edgar González Varela

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Abstract: There are five platonic arguments for the existence of Ideas in Aristotle’s treatise On Ideas (Peri ideon). According to Metaphysics A 9 two of these arguments are “more accurate” than the others. The standard interpretation of this distinction claims that the “more accurate” arguments are valid to conclude the existence of Ideas while the “less accurate” ones are not. In this paper I call into question this interpretation, for I offer a new interpretation of one of the “less accurate” arguments, the object of thought argument, according to which this is valid to conclude the existence of Ideas.
Keywords: universals, separation, Plato

La Retórica y la Poética de Aristóteles: sus puntos de confluencia

[Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics: Their Points of Confluence]

Graciela Marta Chichi and Viviana Suñol

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Abstract: Rhetoric and Poetics have a long cultural and conceptual history in common. Although Aristotle claims in these treatises the autonomy of their respective disciplines, he also recognizes that they share a common domain. This paper wants to show the external and internal confluence that closely links both works and both disciplines. In the first section, we do some research on the two positions that the ancient catalogues and presentations assign to the teachings of Rhetoric and Poetics. The analyses of the second section intend to establish that the conceptual interdependence of the two disciplines occurs in the joint field of διάνοια and λέξις . Finally, we argue that in thought and elocution —as we cautiously translate them— could be suggested the common history that rhetoric and poetic have had in their later development, as they were mutually and alternatively absorbed.
Keywords: Aristotle, catalogues, διάνοια, λέξις

El problema del nominalismo en la definición spinozista del alma

[The Problem of Nominalism in the Spinozistic Definition of the Soul]

Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich

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Abstract: The answer that I give to the problem of nominalism in the work of Baruch Spinoza determines in a decisive fashion the possibilities of replying affirmatively to the question about human nature. To decide (along with a large number of contemporary interpreters of Spinoza’s philosophy) that the latter is ultimately built upon nominalistic principles forces us to do away with every ontological foundation of human nature, touchstone concept of Spinoza’s deduction both of the affects and of the therapeutic strategies that show the way to beatitudo. My aim, on the contrary, consists in bringing to light the necessarily universal component that underlies Spinoza’s psychology. Aiming at this, I review not only certain key aspects regarding the problem of the kinds of knowledge, but also the Spinozistic theory of definition.
Keywords: Spinoza, nominalism, essentialism, human nature

La noción de constitución en el análisis de la experiencia perceptiva

[The Notion of Constitution in the Analysis of Perceptual Experience]

Olga Fernández Prat

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Abstract: In this paper I try to explain what the problem of constitution in the framework of perceptual experience consists in, and also to argue that this problem continues to be in force. Through three key philosophers —Husserl, Cassirer, and Carnap—it is shown how the problem, which has Kantian roots, has been treated in the main philosophical traditions of the twentieth century, and furthermore, how the Husserlian approach sets up a new scenario. Although at the present time the term ‘constitution’ has practically disappeared from the philosophical scene, on the basis of the interpretative clues here offered I try to show that this fact does not mean that the alluded problem does not continue to be a significant subject in the study of perception and the mind.
Keywords: phenomenology, noema, analytic philosophy, mode of presentation