Diánoia

volume LII, number 59, November 2007



Articles

La causalidad del Primer Motor en Metafísica XII

[The Causality of the First Mover in Metaphysics XII]

Alberto Ross Hernández

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Abstract: This paper aims to offer an answer to the main objections against the traditional interpretation of Met. XII. The exposition runs as follows. Firstly, the main ideas of Lambda and the classic reconstruction of them will be set forth. Then, the most important objections to this interpretation and thirdly it will be considered. Finally, an answer to them, appealing to other parts of the corpus, will be introduced. I will try to prove that there is no problem in accepting that the First Mover, being an object of love, of desire, is a final cause, and I will offer an explanation about the compatibility of the classical account of Met. XII and those passages that seem to refer to an efficient cause.
Keywords: Aristotle, God, motion, metaphysics

Fenomenología del transcurso del tiempo

[Phenomenology of the Passage of Time]

Mario Toboso Martín

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Abstract: In this paper I shall discuss consciousness of the passage of time from a phenomenological point of view, based on the approach of Merleau- Ponty. I shall introduce the description of the categorial and dynamical structure of the field of presence in order to consider later in this context the analysis of the passage of time. Traditionally this phenomenon has been presented in terms of a disjunction between two movements, oriented respectively towards the past and the future. I shall show that suitable comprehension of the above mentioned phenomenon needs the joint consideration of both movements inside the temporal frame of the field of presence.
Keywords: phenomenology, time consciousness, field of presence, passage of time

¿Ética sin metafísica? El contractualismo moral de Thomas Scanlon

[Ethics without Metaphysics? Thomas Scanlon’s Moral Contractualism]

Faviola Rivera Castro

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Abstract: In What We Owe to Each Other, Thomas Scanlon offers an account of both the content and the normative basis of the morality of right and wrong, by which he means that part of morality concerned with what we owe to each other. I examine the reasons why Scanlon maintains that his account is not metaphysical but practical. I trace the meaning of “practical” back to some of John Rawls’s writings as well as Kant’s, and I hold that, in fact, moral metaphysics is not incompatible with morality’s practical character. In my view, Scanlon’s rejection of metaphysics is motivated by his conception of morality as being not categorical.
Keywords: ethics, moral contractualism, Scanlon, metaphysics

Un alma enferma. La experiencia religiosa de Wittgenstein a la luz de Las variedades de la experiencia religiosa de William James

[A Sick Soul. Wittgenstein’s Religious Experience seen from William James’ Varieties of Religious Experience.]

Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte

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Abstract: This article maintains that Wittgenstein can be seen as a sick soul in the terms of William James’ The Varieties of the Religious Experience. It also holds that from the reading of this book Wittgenstein adopted a religious ideal that explains some aspects of his biography, his hostility to bourgeois civilization and the religious meaning of his philosophy.
Keywords: religion, melancholy, civilization, philosophy

El peso del deber de asistencia a pueblos foráneos frente a las exigencias de justicia doméstica

[The Weight of the Duty of Assistance to Foreign Peoples Facing Domestic Justice Demands]

Hugo Omar Seleme

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Abstract: Adopting a conception of domestic justice committed to the redistribution of income would seem to lead to a dilemma. Regardless of whether the current institutional framework is just or not, no resources remain available to face foreign demands of justice. The Rawlsian conception of justice appears to fall prey to this dilemma. If the demands of the principle of difference formulated in A Theory of Justice are satisfied in the domestic domain, there would seem to be no resources left for the satisfaction of the duty of assistance consigned in The Law of Peoples for the international domain. I explore a solution to the dilemma —within the framework of justice as fairness— based on the existing analogy between the duty of just saving and the duty of assistance. Finally, I show the radical practical consequences that result from the solution proposed.
Keywords: cosmopolitanism, distributive justice, international justice

El debate en torno a la representación de acontecimientos límite del pasado reciente: alcances del testimonio como fuente

[The Debate on the Historical Representation of Limit Events of the Recent Past: Testimony as Source]

María Inés Mudrovcic

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Abstract: In recent debates about the scope of historical representation for giving a proper account of events beyond the limits of human comprehension and experience, some theorists and historians have tended to favor the immediacy of lived experience —which apparently would be transmitted by the witness. The retrospective point of view, then, has been obscured. The latter point of view implies a degree of detachment from lived experience and is present not only in testimony but also in historiography. This article will thus analyze the role played by testimony in a theory of history, as “evidence or proof of” real past or as “access” to it.
Keywords: testimony, historical representation, limit events

El carácter de los tipos ideales weberianos y su relación con las ciencias naturales

[The Character of Weberian Ideal Types and Their Relation to Natural Sciences]

Xavier de Donato

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Abstract: In the present paper, I examine the relation between the ideal concepts of natural sciences and the ideal types proposed by Max Weber as a specific part of the methodology in human sciences. I will present some difficulties in the accounts which have been proposed so far in this sense. My main thesis will be that in Weber’s notion of “ideal type” there is indeed an element which makes it possible to establish an important comparison with the ideal concepts in natural sciences. Notwithstanding, the consequences drawn from this comparison are not sufficient for neglecting the methodological difference Weber ascribed to both kinds of sciences.
Keywords: ideal concepts, idealization, Max Weber’s methodology, demarcation between natural and social sciences