Diánoia

volume LI, number 57, November 2006



Articles

El poder de la primera persona

[The Power of the First Person]

Carlos Pereda

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Abstract: This paper explores the question “who am I?” and what power or powers, if any, may be attributed to the first person. In the first place, the views of Descartes and Hume are contrasted and a biological eliminativism of mental life is considered as a possible development of the Humeian view. Several reasons are offered to cast doubt on all three positions. In the second place, an attempt is made to justify three possible sets of first-person powers: the first person is equipped with reliable sensory organs and with a no-less reliable use of words; the first person is capable of knowing him/herself; the first person has the capacity to intervene in the world: to initiate sequences of events.
Keywords: power, first person, identity, argumentative vertigos

Reflexión y juicio

[Reflexion and Judgment]

Alejandro Vigo

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Abstract: This paper gives a reconstruction of Kant’s view in the “Amphiboly of Concepts of Reflexion” of his Critique of Pure Reason on the role of reflexive process underlying objective judgments. Kant’s thesis that objective judgments always presuppose reflexive mediation at their basis is taken to refer only to the process of original active production of judgment, and not to the different possible ways of passive assumption without active re-execution. The specific contribution of the so-called “transcendental reflexion” can be described in terms of inclusion of sensibility in the process of comparison of representations.
Keywords: Kant, amphiboly, logical reflexion, transcendental reflexion

Una serena desesperación. La ética individualista de William James

[A Quiet Desperation. On William James's Individualistic Ethics]

Ramón del Castillo

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Abstract: In this essay, I explore one of the most polemic faces of William James’s philosophy: his view of moral life as struggle of individuals powered by moral energies which escape from social controls but which, properly reconducted, could revert to the common good. Far from glorifying the ideal of a self-sufficient and olympic selfdominated by a will to power, James claimed for the virtues of passionate and strenuous individuals but also self-conscious of their many limitations and of the intrinsic contradictions of human moral actions. The essay, in addition, connects James’s moral individualism with his axiological pluralism raising some doubts about the public viability of an individualistic ethics centred on radical antagonism between values.
Keywords: pluralism, pragmatism, americanism, Santayana

Fundamentación universalista de una lista de capacidades requerida por la justicia global

[Universalist Philosophical Justification for a List of Capabilities Required by Global Justice]

Gustavo Pereira

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Abstract: Based on a theory of means and capabilities, this paper offers universalistic foundations to distributive and compensatory criteria, characteristic of the equality of capabilities. In order to do this, certain pragmatic transcendental foundations will be used, which combine universal validity and local sensitivity. From this perspective, Nussbaum’s use of reflective equilibrium to reach universalistic grounds is criticised, although the reflective equilibrium is adopted here as the hermeneutic moment which is required by the applicability of such universalistic grounds.
Keywords: justice, equality, capabilities, foundations

La historia como promesa incumplida. Hayden White, heurística y realismo figural

[History as Unfulfilled Promise. Hayden White and Figural Realism]

Verónica Tozzi

>PDF (239KB)
Abstract: Hayden White offers an original way to understand the historicization of past events. Auerbach’s notion of “figural realism” allows us to understand the production of realist historical representations in terms of the presentation of a figure of the reality. These reflections explain why an ultimate version of past events cannot be obtained: history is always figured by agents immersed in their present and it will be unavoidably rewritten time and time again. In a pragmatist way, we may think that scientific practice is guided in several occasions by the assessment of alternative theoretical proposals not so much because of its conformity with the evidence (something not decidable), but bearing in mind which of them suggests new paths of inquiry. The concept of “heuristic evaluation” offers an adequate way of understanding the controversial and non-ultimate character of historical rewriting practice.
Keywords: philosophy, epistemology, historiography, realism

Invención y realidad. La noción de mímesis como imitación creadora en Paul Ricoeur

[Invention and Reality. The Notion of Mimesis like Creative Imitation in Paul Ricoeur]

Alfredo Martínez Sánchez

>PDF (316KB)
Abstract: Many of Ricoeur’s proposals concerning literature, frequently extensible to his theses on language in general, or depending on them, have its core in a notion of mimesis originated in Aristotle’s Poetics. It is not just a question of ideas related to a literary theory or to a philosophy of language, but they enter deeply into the whole of his thought, establishing links between different level and questions, which can lead to an ethical reflection, aim at the way of an ontology, or open a hermeneutic horizon. I will try to reconstruct the conception of the mimesis in Ricoeur, wondering about its scope, its meaning and its limitations.
Keywords: hermeneutics, literature, aesthetic, Aristotle