Diánoia

volume L, number 55, November 2005



Articles

Los sueños

[Dreams]

Ernesto Sosa

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Abstract: What are dreams made of? Are they like our conscious states in waking life except only for how they relate causally to their environment? No, dreaming is more like imagining than like hallucinating. We go into why this matters for philosophy, and in particular for epistemology. Interesting consequences follow for the status and epistemological distinctiveness of the cogito.
Keywords: philosophy, imagination, cogito, epistemology

Sustancia e inherencia en las Categorías de Aristóteles

[Substance and Inherence in Aristotle's Categories]

Fabián Mié

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Abstract: The combination and possible relations between the different types of entities present in the first Aristotelian essentialism govern the ontological economy in Categories by establishing priority and posteriority links among substances (I will refer to such vertical links as R1) on the basis of some criteria that Aristotle tries to clarify. However, the first Aristotelian essentialism is grounded on a distinction between essential and accidental properties, which might contribute to explain what an object is necessarily, and what features might it have or lack without compromising its identity. In this paper I offer a reconstruction of the transversal relation (R2) among substance and accidents as well as of the Aristotelian concept of accident and of some associated semantic features.
Keywords: metaphysics, first Aristotelian essentialism, conceptual reconstruction

El Wittgenstein de Kripke y la analogía entre reglas y fundamentos

[Krripke's Wittgestein and the Analogy between Rules and Grounds]

Mario Gómez-Torrente

>PDF (332KB)
Abstract: I explore an argument for epistemic non-factualism, the thesis that epistemic attributions do not describe facts. The argument is analogous to but independent of Kripke’s Wittgenstein’s argument for non-factualism about rule-following. Some objections to the two arguments are considered and rejected, in particular accusations of incoherence and “reductivism”. The epistemic argument and a “skeptical solution” to it are argued to be part of Wittgenstein’s conception in On Certainty.
Keywords: knowledge, meaning, skepticism, non-factualism

La disolución kantiana del idealismo

[The Kantian Dismissal of Idealism]

Jorge Ornelas

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Abstract: This paper presents two claims: first of all, that the “Refutation of Idealism” and the “Fourth Paralogism” develop two distinct anti-skeptical strategies. While the first one tries to “refute” the skeptical challenge, the second one tries to “dismiss” it. Secondly, it attempts to show that, unlike the “Refutation of Idealism”, the “Fourth Paralogism” is designed to undermine “transcendental realism”, which, according to Kant, is the source of “transcendental illusions” like antinomies and paralogisms.
Keywords: Kant, skepticism, refutation/dismissal, fourth paralogism

¿Qué criterio de igualdad requiere una democracia deliberativa?

[What Criterion of Equality Does Deliberative Democracy Require?]

Julio Montero

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Abstract: In this paper I will try to establish an accurate criterion of equality for a deliberative democracy. In order to achieve this, I will begin by analyzing Rawls’ proposal and Sen’s criticisms to it. I will then present Guariglia’s Principle of Autonomy and I will expound its problems. Finally, using Bohman’s idea of “deliberative capability”, I will present my own criterion of equality. According to this principle, the state has to guarantee every citizen the minimum threshold of material and intellectual abilities that will allow him or her to take part in public deliberation. However, once this threshold is achieved, citizens themselves are the ones to decide which conception of economic and social justice is the most appropriate for their political community.
Keywords: inclusion, deliberative capacity, public functioning, participation