Diánoia

volume L, number 54, May 2005



Articles

Necesidad de origen y metafísica modal

[Necessity of Origin and Modal Metaphysics]

José Tomás Alvarado Marambio

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Abstract: Kripke proposed that the origin of an entity should be deemed as part of the essence of it. Kripke’s argument required a crucial premise stating that certain hunk of matter and certain other non-trivial conditions are sufficient to deliver the entity in question. Further efforts by philosophers like Nathan Salmon and Graeme Forbes to make this requirement both precise and feasible have all nevertheless ended in failure. Here it is argued why this failure will always recur in these lines. The problem of the necessity of origin should be tackled in a different vein. It is argued that there seems to be no middle ground between necessity of all conditions of origin and contingency of all those conditions. Particularly, the idea that conditions of origin may be for the most part necessary, allowing the possibility of slight changes in them, is incoherent with a sensible conception of the ontological realm of the modal.
Keywords: ontology, identity, accesibility, principle of sufficiency

Sobre la esencia individual

[On Individual Essence]

Pilar Fernández Beites

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Abstract: This article deals with the problem of individual essence by appealing to Zubiri’s ontology, in which individuation is not only understood as mere singularity, like in classical philosophy, but as “diversity”. Zubiri’s theory is completed by introducing a new sense of individuality proper to humankind: individuality as “unrepeatability”. In order to account for this strong individuality, I use Scheler’s theory, which insists on the unrepeatability of the human “spirit”, and holds that the individual essence of the person depends on a spiritual character (ethos), and on an ordo amoris. Finally, in controversy with Scheler, I suggest that what provides individuality as unrepeatability is liberty.
Keywords: liberty, unrepeatability, Scheler, Zubiri

Estados mentales, contenidos y conceptos

[Mental States, Contents and Concepts]

Nora Stigol

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Abstract: The aim of this paper is to introduce the present debate between conceptualists and non-conceptualists in today’s philosophy of mind, in relation to the content of mental states. The debate deals with the issue of the existence of non-conceptual modes of representing the world. The subject under discussion is the non-conceptual features of the contents of certain mental states. The polemic is carried on mainly in three different domains: the one of representative states in creatures lacking conceptual abilities; the one of subpersonal states in information processing, and the one of perceptual experiences. I introduce and discuss the non-conceptual content notion and its legitimacy in these three domains.
Keywords: representation, non-conceptual content, perception, subpersonal states

El concepto de lo innato en la psicología evolucionista

[The Concept of Innateness in Evolutionary Psychology]

Claudia Lorena García

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Abstract: Some of the literature pertaining to certain evolutionary cognitive disciplines is here reviewed.It is shown that there is at least one important connotation associated to the term “innate” as it is used in those disciplines; to wit, that an innate feature is one which is the product of evolution by natural selection. Then three recent proposals are examined characterizing innateness through concepts and ideas from biology —i.e., André Ariew’s, WilliamWimsatt’s and mine—and conclude that, although Ariew’s and Wimsatt’s proposals capture the aforementioned evolutionary connotation, they must be rejected since they either have serious internal problems, or else are incompatible with other important connotations associated to the term innate in evolutionary cognitive disciplines. It is also shown in this paper that my proposal does not share the problems that the previous ones had, but does share some of their advantages.
Keywords: cognitive sciences, biology, canalization, generative entrenchment

La moral kantiana en la década del silencio. Elementos para una reconstrucción

[Kant’s Moral in the Silent Decade. Elements for a Reconstruction]

José Santos Herceg

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Abstract: This paper intends to serch in Kant’s Lectures and Manuscripts on Moral Philosophy some elements that make posible a reconstruction of that what may be a Moral Theory during the “silent Decade”.
Keywords: motivation, weakness, highest good, God

La poesía como un preludio a la filosofía: algunas reflexiones sobre un poema tardío de Borges

[Poetry as a Prelude to Philosophy: Some Reflections on a Late Poem of Borges]

Douglas McDermid

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Abstract: In this essay I propose not only to analyze a poem by Jorge Luis Borges, but also to connect that poem with a metaphilosophical idea of Plato’s —namely, the view that philosophy begins in wonder. For I argue that some poetry —Borges’ brief poem being an admirable example— can serve as a prelude to philosophy by arousing Platonic wonder in readers capable of experiencing it.
Keywords: metaphilosophy, the self, possibility, custom