Diánoia

volume XLIX, number 52, May 2004



Articles

Principios lógicos y principios morales: la identidad de los indiscernibles

[Logical Principles and Moral Principles: The Identity of Indiscernibles]

Raúl Quesada

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Abstract: The logical status of the identity of indiscernibles is considered in the context of Principia Mathematica’s definition of identity and in reference to the Leibniz-Clarke polemics. In his defence Leibniz distinguishes between logical and moral necessity and relates the latter to existence, jure divino, and the principle of sufficient reason. In Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Russell is criticised in the same terms that Clarke used against Leibniz, but Wittgenstein also talks about the ‘experience’ that something is, necessary to understand logic, and points out that logic could be prior to the question ‘How?’, but not to the question ‘What?’ From this a parallel is suggested between Wittgenstein’s position and Leibniz’s distinction which could be used to rethink in Leibnizian terms logic’s radical independence.
Keywords: God, necessity, existence, ethics

Heidegger y la indicación formal: hacia una articulación categorial de la vida humana

Jesús Adrián Escudero

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Abstract: This article tackles the complex Heideggerian problem of how can we have an appropriate access to the immediate manifestation field of human life. Taking the concept of ‘hermeneutics of facticity’ as the point of departure, I analyze Heidegger’s proposal of a categorial articulation of human existence, in which the analytic instrumental of formal indicators are used, that is, the basic concepts serving to make explicit, in a reflective manner, the comprehension that life, Dasein, has of itself. In this context I try to explain the meaning and function of these indicators in the categorial explication of life: on the one hand, I trace its antecedents to the case of indirect communication by Kierkegaard, and the occasional expressions by Husserl; on the other, I show whether it is possible for such an explication to be nourished by the Husserlian concept of categorial intuition.
Keywords: hermeneutical situation, destruction, factic life, formal indicators, categorial intuition

Nietzsche: génesis y validez de la moral

Enrique Serrano Gómez

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Abstract: Many interpretations of Nietzsche’s philosophy claim that his genealogical method challenges the universal validity of moral principles. Yet, when one scrutinizes his arguments in more detail, a much more complex problem is revealed. In the first place, we find Nietzsche ascertaining, through a quite distinctive use of so-called invisible-hand explanations, that morals is an artifice; this artificial character explaining away the diversity of customs in history. Secondly, we find that, despite Nietzsche’s radical criticism of morality, this very criticism relies on a certain criterion of validity, which cannot be reduced to the historical dimension, as he himself acknowledges. This paper critically interprets the latter criterion of validity.
Keywords: history, invisible-hand explanations, justice, reason

La trama temporal del arte

Sixto J. Castro

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Abstract: Any art theory must give special attention to the question of time. It is a fact that the work of art sets up different temporalities. In this paper, I intend to analyze how art makes a temporal correlation, that is, it is temporally constituted, since the work of art can be examined from the point of view of many different concepts of time. I will set out the most important relationships between art and time, and I will make some interpretative proposals.
Keywords: Aesthetics, art theory, time, instant

Algunas observaciones sobre la educación poético-musical en la Exposición de la “República” de Platón de Averroes

[Musical and Poetical Education: Some Remarks on Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s“Republic”]

Luis Xavier López Farjeat

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Abstract: The purpose of this work is to comment on the places where Averroes studies the role of musical and poetical education in his Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”. His knowledge of the Aristotelian corpus and the legacy of some of his Arab predecessors allow Averroes to make some remarks on different kinds of discourse and, particularly, on poetic discourse. As is well known, the role of poets in the city is a matter that Plato considers in several occasions within the Republic. Averroes’ remarks are slightly different from those of Platonic philosophy, and they are intended to show the importance of political science within the Islamic culture.
Keywords: Arab philosophy, politics, logic

Dussel y el suicidio

[Dussel and Suicide]

Julio Cabrera

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Abstract: In his recent book, Ética de la liberación en la edad de la globalización y la exclusión (1998), Enrique Dussel presents his “ethics of liberation” as an “ethics of life” opposed to “suicide tendencies” in the modern world. This paper addresses certain difficulties in Dussel’s statement of the material principle of respect of human life, the ideal of social liberation and the absolute refusal of suicide at the same time. I maintain that Dussel is constrained to some reformulation of at least one of these three issues. In fact, Dussel is compelled to keep the principle of liberation as the main support of his ethics, admitting crucial reformulation of the material principle of respect of human life and some sort of moral tolerance concerning suicide.
Keywords: life, suicide, homicide, ethics