Diánoia

volume XLVIII, number 50, May 2003



Articles

La reconstrucción de la teoría del razonamiento de Dignaga por medio de la lógica formal. Una crítica a la propuesta formalista del razonamiento

[The Formal Reconstruction of Dignaga's Theory of Reasoning. A Critical Review on Formalist Proposal]

Huang Xiang

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Abstract: The formalist approach to reasoning holds that the philosophical problems of human reasoning concern only its logical structure. Having reference to a case study of Dignaga's theory of reasoning, this article argues that such a formalist approach is unacceptable because the criteria for determining the correction of human reasoning often do not depend solely on its logical rules, but also on a series of factors that configure the practical contexts of its application. Dignaga's theory tries to model the correct applications of human reasoning in its practical contexts. If we reconstruct this theory only by means of some formal analyses of its logical structure, as most of historians of Indian logic have done, our neglect of these contextual factors will finally lead us to distorted and even paradoxical consequences, instead of a correct understanding of the nature of both Dignaga's theory and human reasoning.
Keywords: ancient Indian logic, hetu, inferential direction, induction

La filosofía del lenguaje: su naturaleza y su contexto

[Philosophy of Language: Its Nature and Background]

Francisco Rodríguez-Consuegra

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Abstract: This is an attempt to determine the nature of philosophy of language, through its relationships with other subjects, both from the historic and the systematic viewpoints. The ways in which philosophy of language has been related to linguistics, logic, psychology and philosophy itself are examined; at the same time, some proposals for clarification of those relationships are made, and some rather obscure notions like "philosophical logic" and "linguistic philosophy" are criticized. The paper ends by supporting the fundamental role of philosophy of language within analytic philosophy.
Keywords: philosophy of language, logic, linguistics, psychology

Significado y comunicación

[Meaning and Communication]

José E. Chaves Ruiz

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Abstract: Grice revealed the close relationship between meaning and communication. Nevertheless, in the subsequent literature that deal with both notions we find that this relationship is traced inaccurately. The present paper analyzes one of the best attempts to overcome this misapprehension: Sperber and Wilson's relevance theory. Though revealing, this attempt does not provide us with an adequate solution as it does not get rid of the misapprehension. This leads these authors to assume a proposal on meaning that entails a setback with regards to the Gricean proposal because it is built up on unjustified criticisms of the definition of speaker's meaning as its starting point. These criticisms disappear when we clarify the relation between the notions as they are established by Grice. Likewise, it shall be defended that, if we understand communication as a rational process, it would be desirable to get support from the best available tools, that is, to make use of the theoretical framework provided by the theory of rational decision.
Keywords: speaker's meaning, rational decision, speaker's intention, inferential model

Política de derechos-política de "bien común". Tres críticas posibles al comunitarismo

[Policy of Rights-Policy of "Common Good". Three Possible Criticisms of Communitarianism]

Gustavo Fondevila

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Abstract: This article presents the contemporary discussion about communitarianism. Later it makes three criticisms of "integrational communitarianism" in agreement with Sheila Benhabib's distinction. This kind of communitarianism develops a political proposal as alternative to the traditional foundation of the liberal rule of law. This proposal includes a new politicizing of the State based on a policy of loyalty, service, civility; tolerance, and participatory politics. The criticisms focus on the role that the community, the contingent, the context, and the "common good" play in this political proposal.
Keywords: liberalism, republicanism, community, participation

Alcances y límites de perspectivas psicoanalíticas en historia

[Psychoanalytical Perspectives in History: Scope and Boundaries]

María Inés Mudrovcic

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Abstract: Some recent works in history have used the concept of trauma to illustrate the undecidability of the nature of our historical experience of collective catastrophes and our representations of them. Unfortunately, the use of the psychoanalytical and neurological versions of the concept of trauma misrepresents the social dynamics of collective memory since it was formulated as a category concerning individual people's memories. In this paper, I will only focus on one of the problems involved: the ontological problem. I will argue that the temporality of trauma is incompatible with the temporality of history.
Keywords: trauma, historiography, temporality, collective memory

Una consolación ante la muerte por medio de una teoría pascaliana de las desdichas del hombre perdurable

[A Consolation for Death by Means of a Pascalian Theory of the Everlasting Man's Sorrows]

Marcio Recial

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Abstract: A consolation for death is offered that may be attractive to people of a perhaps unusual character, linked to the unconditional desire to live forever. It is assumed that death is bad for one if it deprives one of something good. It is also assumed that death is infinitely bad for someone of such a character if it deprives him/her of an everlasting physical life. Moreover, it is argued that death appears to deprive us of precisely this, for it appears that in the future it will be technologically possible to prolong physical life indefinitely. The consolation is that a physical life prolonged by technological means would be unhappy for people of the mentioned character: they would permanently worry about losing something infinitely good -everlasting physical life. An argument similar to that of Pascal's wager even shows that all courses of action would have for these people an infinite expected badness.
Keywords: immortality, Pascal's wager