Diánoia

volume XLVII, number 48, May 2002



Articles

Descripciones definidas, demostrativos y sus usos

[Definite Descriptions, Demonstratives and Their Uses]

Maite Ezcurdia

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Abstract: In answering the challenge Donnellan has set for Russellians in explaining referential uses of definite descriptions, Russellians have appealed to the distinction between speaker’s meaning and semantic meaning. Assuming that, unlike definite descriptions, demonstratives can only be used referentially, I defend the claim that even in their case we can distinguish semantic from speaker’s meaning. I explain how the distinction can be applied to the cases of complex and bare demonstratives. The distinction partly depends on distinguishing the referential intentions that complete the demonstrative from intentions that are primarily communicative.
Keywords: descriptions, demonstratives, semantics, pragmatics

El pensamiento analógico en las filosofías analítica y pragmática

[Analogical Thinking in Analytic and Pragmatist Philosophies]

Mauricio Beuchot

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Abstract: This article examines some of the relations that hold between analytic and pragmatist philosophies. One of them is the attempt of some analytic philosophers to reduce dichotomies (a typical pragmatist task). Here it is argued that in the task of reducing dichotomies the notion of analogy has played a major role (e.g. in Peirce’s iconicity) and that this notion can still benefit current discussion in philosophy.
Keywords: analogy, analytic philosophy, pragmatist philosophy, history of philosophy

Política e imperium en Maquiavelo y Spinoza

[Imperium and Politics in Machiavelli and Spinoza]

Humberto Schettino

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Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to present the basic content of the theories of politics proposed by Machiavelli and Spinoza. The primary task is to answer the questions: what is politics?, what are its main characteristics?, and what can we expect from it? The answers to these questions are given through analysis of the notion of ‘imperium’, present in the writings of both authors and, also, through that of the problems of the human condition and of human nature, which function as basic assumptions of Machiavelli’s and Spinoza’s conception of politics.
Keywords: politics, imperium, power, human nature

El problema de la obligación política en Hobbes y Spinoza

[The Problem of Political Obligation in Hobbes and Spinoza]

Luis Salazar

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Abstract: In the first part of this essay, I examine some difficulties in Hobbes’ theory of political obligation. Starting from Rousseau’s distinction between de facto and legitimate (legal) power, I analyze the specific way in which Hobbes tried to identify what he called “laws of nature”, understood as rational theorems capable of lending rational legitimacy to the Sovereign Power, and thus establishing a coincidence between what is rational and what is just. Next, I analyze Hobbes’ arguments against the “theory of the fool”, that is, of the individual who does not accept the confluence of rationality and legitimacy; with this argument, Hobbes tried to make clear the utopic weaknesses of those arguments. In the second part of the essay I show how Spinoza, starting from premises that bear apparent similarities to those of Hobbes, in fact radically reformulates this perspective, in order to propose a “realist”, though democratic, conception of the political processes of legitimation.
Keywords: political obligation, legitimacy, rationality, power

La cuestión del aborto. Una perspectiva filosófico-jurídica de un problema ético-moral

[The Matter of Abortion. A Legal-Philosophical View of an Ethical-Moral Problem]

Adrián Rentería Díaz

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Abstract: This article sets out to examine the legal-normative dimension of the abortion problem, considering the fact that an excessive emphasis on the ethical-moral dimension leads one into a pointless taking of positions. The dispassionate discussion of both abortion and its unavoidable public dimension is hindered by this taking of positions. Even though the author acknowledges his view as a moral one, he also asserts the possibility of regarding abortion as an action which can be linked to a “soft” legal model, where the moral view of legislation does not assume the features of the common moral view, but allows every individual to apply his/her own moral view. This leads us toward a legislation where abortion is neither an issue nor a legal duty nor a matter for prohibition: to abort or not to abort, according to this legal regulation model, is a decision made by individuals on the basis of their own beliefs.
Keywords: abortion, law, permission, person