volume XLVI, number 46, May 2001


Las tesis panteístas de Isaac Newton

[Isaac Newton’s Pantheist Theses]

José A. Robles

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Abstract: In this paper, a discussion of some theological theses of Newton’s contained in his posthumously published “De gravitatione et æquipondio fluidorum” (ca. 1668), I hold that his author maintains a pantheistic position which will still be sustained in his Opticks (1704) and in the “General Scholium” to the “System of the World” of the 1713/1726 editions of his magnificent Philosophiæ naturalis principia mathematica Besides arguing for the aforementioned thesis of Newton’s, I also consider two interesting proposals on Creation, that of John Scot Eriugena (ca. 810– 877) and that by the 16th century Kabalist, Isaac Luria (1534–1572), both of whomh came to be seen as pantheists (Scot Eriugena’s views were condemned by the Paris Council of 1210, 333 years after his death) even if they did not meant their proposals to be so. Finally, I consider a way to make sense of Newton’s theological proposals within a treatise of natural philosophy.
Keywords: history of philosophy, natural philosophy, Newton, theology

La muerte según Baruch Spinoza: aproximaciones a una noción problemática

[Death in Spinoza’s Ethics: Different Views about a Problematic Notion]

Diana Cohen

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Abstract: The notion of death is not free of problems within Spinoza’s theory of Substance. If it is conceived as the destruction of the body, this definition complicates our conception of death. But if matter is perennial energy, as Spinoza thinks, is it possible to talk properly about annihilation? If it is said, instead, that death is the loss of the personal identity, we may ask ourselves what does identity mean, when literally read, Spinoza talks about just one real entity, the Substance. And if we consider one of the most curious doctrines of the philosopher, that there is something in the soul that does not perish with the body and is eternal, the notion of death opens metaphysical questions that seem to collide with others claims of the Ethics. I examine the framework of all these subjects and the doubts that they arise about certain central thesis of the Ethics.
Keywords: conatus, death, destruction, identity, individual

Algunas reflexiones sobre la “falacia naturalista”. (¿Pueden tener contenidos normativos implícitos cierto tipo de juicios empíricos?)

[Some Considerations on the “Naturalistic Fallacy” (Could Have Normative Implicit Context Same Type of Empirical Statements?)]

Enrique Dussel

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Abstract: From an agreement with the analytical critique of the naturalistic fallacy (from a reinterpretation of the position of Hume, and an exposition of the doctrine in Moore and the analytical philosophy) the author shows that in the case of a descriptive statement about the human life as such (as a human being responsible by his/her life it self), this type of statement is also “implicit” normative. “Make explicit” this normative (Random) aspect of the descriptive statement is not an analytical incorrect deduction of a normative statement from a descriptive one. It is not a case of naturalistic fallacy.
Keywords: ethics, fallacy, naturalist, principles

Manifiesto nacionalista (o hasta separatista, si me apuran)

C. Ulises Moulines

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Abstract: The twofold thesis of this paper is that nationalism, as a program devoted to the defense and development of nations, is a well-founded doctrine, both on an ontologico-epistemological and on an axiological level. The ontologicoepistemological part of the thesis is that nations are real empirical entities, although they are not directly but rather theoretically identifiable —in quite the same way as so many other theoretical entities of the most advanced sciences. Nations are special types of ethnical groups; a “mini-theory” is laid out here settling the “minimal axioms” that determine those entities. The axiological thesis is that it is something good that the universe (especially in the sociocultural domain) consists of as great a variety as possible of things; consequently, an ethico-political program like nationalism, which propounds the preservation and development of nations, should be valued positively.
Keywords: ethnical group, nation, nationalism, theoretical concepts